Pain Refers to an unpleasant feeling that is relayed to the brain via the sensory neurons. It is basically a response that signals discomfort or injury on any part of the body. Nursing care plan for pain are a means by which an affected person is continually assessed and diagnosed with the right interventions.
There are three main components of nursing care plan for pain namely: Assessments, Diagnosis and Interventions. Let us now take a more detailed approach at each one of them in relation to how you should apply them in your career.
The assessment of pain needs to be factual and accurate. Basically it needs to:
* Establish the baseline of the pain.
* Carry out the appropriate nursing diagnosis.
* Recommend a suitable therapy.
* Closely evaluating the client response to the recommended therapy.
As a nurse, it is important that you explore the nature of the pain from the patient’s perspective. This will help you identify, recognize, determine, explain and evaluate the appropriate mode of treatment.
In nursing assessment, there are various key areas that you require to lay special attention on. These include:
How the Client expresses the pain
Most of the time clients fail to report or to discuss the true nature of their pain. In this light, you must learn to be very verbal so as to get as much information from the client as possible. You need to establish as much facts as possible so as to address the root cause of the problem.
You also need to determine the extent of the pain (either mild, acute or chronic) in an attempt to come up with the appropriate mode of treatment.
Pain can be classified as acute or chronic. If the pain is acute, then it’ll be necessary for you to carry out a detailed assessment to establish its characteristics. On the other hand, if the pain is chronic, then you’ll require establishing whether it is intermittent, persistent or limited.
Characteristics of Pain
After establishing the nature of the pain, the following characteristics will help you carry a further assessment of the pain. They include:
* The Onset and Duration of the pain- You should analyze the length of time for which the client has suffered from the pain and how often the pain relapses.
* Location- You should also establish where the pain is felt. Carry out a thorough analysis on that specific area and note any important details that may help you diagnose the pain appropriately.
* Severity- Ordinarily, the client should be in a position to describe the severity of the pain. You can also judge the same from the extent of the damage (if in case of an injury). You can make use assistive devices (descriptive, numerical or visual analogue) to establish the severity of the pain.
* Establish the effects of the pain on the client. Pain can adversely affect one’s psychological well-being. For this reason it is very important that you be on the lookout for the following things on the patient so as to establish the effect of the pain.
- Behavioral effects- assess the body movements, verbal responses and facial expressions.
- Physical and psychological symptoms.
- Effects on ADL-for this you can assess how a client participates in his (or her) routine activities.
Neurological Status- Assess any factors that may interfere with the reception or the perception of the pain in a client.
As a nurse, there are 6 ways in which you can diagnose pain. These are as follows:
* Acute Pain
* Chronic Pain
* Ineffective individual coping
* Impaired physical mobility
* Risk of injury
How Should You Intervene In The Event of Pain?
After you’ve established to nature and magnitude of the pain, you’ll need to develop a good nursing diagnoses plan. For this, you should be in a position to discuss with your client so as to create realistic expectations on the effects that may be borne after the treatment.
Basically, the general objectives of this nursing care for pain include:
* Making the client feel healthy and comfortable.
* Ensuring that the client retains the ability of self-care.
* Ensuring that the patient maintains the psychological and physical function currently owned.
* Ensuring that the client describes the nature and magnitude of his pain.
* Ensuring that the clients safely use the recommended therapy at home.